Genres and forms of folk instrumental music
The problem of the genre in modern musicology is one of the most pressing. In the scientific literature, genre groups are distinguished in accordance with various assessments: the performing staff (vocal, instrumental, mixed, solo, ensemble, orchestral, choral genres), the place of performance of music and its purpose (concert, theater, religious, street). The concept of the genre is most consistently developed in the works of Soviet musicologists V. Tsukerman and A. Sokhar.
Primary (household) genres that belong to the sphere of life content are distinguished: song, dance, march, and others, and have concrete and applied functions. Secondary (professional) genres that emerged as a result of the development and differentiation of musical academic art in the works of composers of different eras: miniature, suite, symphony, etc. Genres and forms of folk instrumental music. One of the defining criteria for genre classification is the vital purpose, the content of a musical work. In accordance with this criterion, the following genre groups can be distinguished: declination, signal, motor (ie, march or dance), meditative. These groups combine all the richness and diversity of music from different countries and peoples.
In accordance with the nature of the expression of content, genres are divided into lyrical, elegiac, and dramatic. A characteristic feature of epic music is the lack of subjectivity in the disclosure of content, exposure. Lyrical music, on the contrary, is distinguished by a bright subjective character, bright personal emotional coloring of musical content. For music, dramatic inherent special elevation, tension feelings. Genres and forms of folk instrumental music The genre in music acts as a typed content that is embodied through typed means of musical expressiveness. The concept of a genre has a historical, nationally outlined character (for example, dance genres – minuet, waltz, rock and roll; polka, bolero, mazurka). Genre analysis is a necessary component of a comprehensive system analysis of oral and written music traditions.
Style – an analysis of style traits that are available for observation in each specific piece of music.
Instrumental music is a vivid artistic distinctive offshoot of the creative activity of the Russian people. The main form of manifestation of instrumental music is a tune. The most common forms of existence of Russian folk instrumental music: solo and ensemble instrumental performance, singing to music.
One of the specific features of the existence of Russian folk instrumental music is its inseparable relationship with rituals, holidays, home life, work. The impact of conditions of existence affects the formation of the repertoire. Aesthetic criteria for the sound of folk musical instruments is one of the distinctive stylistic features of traditional instrumental culture. Bright, clear, precise, sonorous, “open”, the timbre of musical instruments when playing “for people” and more modest, lyrical when playing “for oneself”.
Connected, like other types of oral folk art with the most diverse aspects of rural life, traditional instrumental music conveys the richness of the shades of people’s feelings and is, above all, an expression of festive world perception and world perception, a carrier and causative agent of a cheerful mood. This defining emotional and psychological trait of instrumental music is deeply recognized by the people themselves. The generally accepted idea of her cheerful, festive nature is in the statements of the musicians themselves: “We play so that it is fun, joyful to everyone and everyone”, “We play for the amusement of ourselves and everyone.” Genres and forms of folk instrumental music It is interesting that occasionally playing boring, sad songs , the musicians change their minor key to major, since “it’s so much more fun, and therefore more beautiful. Even if they play “for themselves” on the instrument (not for people), they say that they feel not only pleasure and peace of mind, but also a surge of health and vigor.